Imperial exams in Song Dynasty

Imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Starting with the Song dynasty, the system was regularized and developed into a roughly three-tiered...

Fan Zhongyan: Be the first to bear the world’s hardship, and the last to...

Fan Zhongyan is one of the most prominent figures in the Chinese history, as a founder of Neo-Confucianism and a great statesman, philosopher, writer, educator, military strategist, and philanthropist of...

Wang Yangming: Integration of Knowledge and Action

Wang Yangming was the leading figure in the Neo-Confucian School of Mind in Ming Dynasty. In his work about “Great...
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Ancient China’s “Virtuous” Women: Three Obediences and Four Virtues

“Female virtue schools” have been known to make headlines in China’s media. In the name of spreading Chinese traditional culture, they promoted “virtues” like “never quarrel...

學記 – Xue Ji

《礼记》之学记,Also known as: "Record on the subject of education" When a ruler is concerned that his measures should be in accordance with law, and seeks...

Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 3

Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 3 When his father or mother is ill, (a young man) who has been capped should not use...

Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 2

A great officer or (other) officer should go out or in at the ruler's doors, on the right of the middle post, without treading...

Summary of the Rules of Propriety -part 1

Selected from 《曲禮》 The Summary of the Rules of Propriety says: Always and in everything let there be reverence; with the deportment grave as when...

The Analects-Weizheng

為政 - To be a government official The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north...

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